About Public Speaking Make sure you have finished speaking before your audience has finished listening. - Dorothy Sarnoff
Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people. It is one of the most valued skills that a person can possess. The aims of public speaking are to inform, convince, influence, persuade or entertain. Good public speaking skills are required from teachers, business people, TV reporters, politicians as well as representatives of other professions.
Effective public skills can be developed by studying the art of speaking (oratory) and by joining a public speaking society. Learners must practice to control their voice (pitch, intonation, rhythm), use gestures, mimics, and eye contact with the audience. In addition, good public speakers should select proper vocabulary and develop relationship with the audience. At present, there is an increasing number of courses - including online courses - for those who want to learn to speak beautifully in front of many people, i.e. to speak in public well and become popular among members of the society. There are lots of good video samples of beautiful speeches given by famous people.
Professional Public Speakers
Words have incredible power. They can make people's hearts soar, or they can make people's hearts sore. - Dr. Mardy Grothe
Those people who speak very well and are famous speakers are called professional public speakers. Professional public speakers can be movie stars, singers, professors, politicians, sport stars, entertainers, and various public figures. The most famous professional public speakers were Martin Luther King, Jr., Sukarno, John Kennedy, Nelson Mandela, Cicero, Isocrates, Julius Caesar, Alexander the Great, Adolf Hitler, and many more.
What is Glossophobia
Many people are afraid of speaking in public so much that they would rather die than speak in public. The fear of speaking in public is called glossophobia, i.e. an abnormal fear of speaking in public. It is important to start teaching public speaking skills in schools, colleges and universities.
Below you will find a sample outline of a course that was designed specifically for the development of public speaking skills for ESL/EFL students.
Instructor: Dr. Algirdas Makarevicius Contact academic hours per week: 4 The last week of classes: week 16 Written exam: week 17 Oral exam: week 18
Students develop public speaking skills. The course consists of two parts, theoretical and practical.
Theoretical Part of the Course. In the theoretical part students focus on methods of delivering an effective public speech. They learn how to speak in front of many people and how to overcome fear and nervousness, how to use effective body language skills, how to prepare PowerPoint presentations. Verbal and non-verbal communication skills are developed; the basic differences between writing and speaking; the importance of body language in public speaking; elements of bodily communication. The introduction, body and conclusion of a speech. Steps to overcome public speaking fear; analysing reasons why most people are afraid of speaking in public; do’s and don’ts in public speaking. The importance of audience in public speaking; the psychology of audience; dealing with the audience; four causes of poor listening; how to become a good listener. How to answer difficult questions. The aim of the outline. The two types of outline: preparation and speech outline; steps in designing an outline; steps in preparing a speech outline. Kinds of visual aids; advantages of visual aids; tips for preparing visual aids; designing PowerPoint presentations. Speech Delivery. The importance of the speaker’s voice in public speaking; aspects of voice: volume, pitch, rate, pauses, vocal variety; pronunciation. What is good delivery? Methods of delivery: reciting from memory, speaking impromptu, speaking extemporaneously and reading from a manuscript. What is persuasion? Methods of persuasion: building and enhancing credibility, evidence, reasoning, appealing to emotions. Kinds of supporting ideas and thoughts: examples, statistics and testimony; steps for using statistics; presenting statistics; kinds of testimony: expert and peer; using quotations in public speaking; tips for using testimony. Types of informative speeches: speeches about objects, processes, events and concepts; tips for informative speeches, organization of informative speeches. Practical Part of the Course.In the practical part students design outlines of presentations and give presentations to large audiences. They give presentations on the topics (they choose topics) related to their majors, or other topics, as requested by the instructor. Oral and aural - speaking and listening - skills also include comprehending the literal and pragmatic meanings of utterances, effecting appropriate feedback with an interlocutor, using a microphone and responding to questions from an audience.
Course Objectives • Acquire public presentation skills which are needed in academic environment by practicing methods and techniques used in the forms of oral discourse. • Design PowerPoint presentations. • Learn how to prepare an effective outline of a presentation. • Use English effectively in oral communication.
Course Outcomes • On completion of this course the students will be able to perform well in the following fields: • Use English effectively in oral communication. • Prepare and give PowerPoint presentations. • Give an effective public speech. • Evaluate the performance of his/her own and that of others. • Use library and Internet to research and select a topic.
Learning Materials • Textbook: Lucas, Stephen E (2001). The Art of Public Speaking 7th ed. Boston: McGraw- Hill.
• Other learning materials: handbook, handouts, PowerPoint, microphone, and websites.
Assessment (100 marks) • Outline of presentation I: 5 • Outline of Presentation II: 5 • Public presentation 1: 20 • Public presentation 2: 20 • Final written exam: 20 • Final oral exam (public presentation): 30
Each student must fulfill the following requirements of the Public Speaking course:
1. Take notes and actively participate in discussions on various topics by asking questions and giving short two-minute presentations or comments, whenever required by the tutor. You will be assessed for participation, from time to time.
2. Study the handouts, books and the Internet materials regularly. Use the learning tools and materials which are provided in the websites, or as recommended by the lecturer.
3. Spend at least 6 hours per week on self-study. Self-study includes revision of notes and handouts, preparation for discussions, collecting and selecting materials for the chosen topics in the Internet and in the library, formulating questions, writing a detailed outline of presentation on a chosen topic and preparing an oral presentation of the topic. Self-study includes all assignments given by your instructor.
4. Attend all classes regularly. If a student misses more than two classes without a clear reason she/he will not be allowed to continue the Course without a special permission from the Dean.
5. Prepare three well organized oral presentations during the semester. Handouts, PowerPoint, overhead projector and other audiovisual devices can be used but a student is not allowed to read out his/her speech. The presentation should last about ten minutes. An outline of the presentation must be handed in to the instructor in advance (before the lesson starts). Copies of the outline for each student must be made if required. The outline of the presentation must be printed on one A4 size page and must contain the student ID number, the name of the student written in English (printed on A4 size paper), title of the topic, and the basic points of the presentation. The font size must be Times New Roman 12. Title font size must be Times New Roman 16.
6. Attend all examinations, lectures and tutorials. Two points will be deducted for each missed class. Cheating at examination or at tutorials is not tolerated. If a student is caught cheating she/he will automatically fail the course. Participation means that the students actively participate in classroom discussions: ask questions, express their opinions and give two-minute presentations, from time to time.
7. Students are not allowed to walk in the classroom or to chat loudly unless permitted by the instructor. If a student ignores the instructor's remarks, uses offensive vocabulary or body language, leaves the classroom early and without the instructor’s permission, is late for classes or insults other students, behaves in an arrogant manner or in any other inappropriate way, the student will be severely punished including expulsion from the College. Expulsion implies that the student should not consider the College for further education.
8. Students are expected to comply with the college-wide requirements for academic integrity. The College is committed to academic integrity — the honest, fair, and continuing pursuit of knowledge, free from fraud or deception. This implies that students are expected to be responsible for their own work. Presenting another individual’s work as one’s own and receiving excessive help from another individual will qualify as a violation of academic integrity. Plagiarism is cheating. In this course, using another person’s words or ideas as your own without giving credit, producing a memorized piece (either your own or someone else’s), or having someone do any portion of your work is cheating. You are expected to complete your own original work by using your own words.
9. The Course Outline is the main document of the course and the topics included in the Course Outline must be discussed every week. The duty of each student is to study the handouts and prepare topics for classroom discussions and presentations. The Course Outline is handed in to each student during the first week of the semester.
10. Any additional questions or suggestions related to the above can be answered or discussed personally by your instructor during the tutorial, after the tutorial, or by email. Each student who approaches the instructor by email must write his/her student number, name and the class/section number on the Subject Line. Anonymous emails will not be replied.
Public Speaking Skills
Introduction to public speaking. Course requirements. Eloquence or skill in making speeches to the public. Famous public orators and their speeches. How to choose a presentation topic? Presentation topic: About Myself (2 minutes).
Students select presentation topics: for Presentation I, for Presentation II, and for the final exam-presentation.
About the importance of body language in public speaking. Types of body language. How to use body language in public speaking? Linguistic and paralinguistic features of public presentations.
My Likes and Dislikes. My Hobbies. Things that Make me Happy. Things that Make me Angry. My Strengths and Weaknesses. If I Could Change the World… If I had Three Wishes…
Tips: How to give an effective public speech? How not to speak in public? Watching a video about public speaking skills.
Tips: Why do most people fear public speaking? How to overcome public speaking fears? Do’s and Don’ts in public speaking. Preparing a presentation.
Steps in preparing a presentation. Steps in preparing an outline of presentation. Sample outlines.
Presentation topics: An Unforgettable Lesson that I Learned, The Saddest/ Happiest Moment in my Life, The Greatest Moment in my Life, An Experience I Had in my Childhood, Someone/Something that Changed my Life.
Organizing the presentation into logical parts. Introduction, body and conclusion. The use of transits.
Public Presentation topics: My Plans, The World in 2020, My Dreams, My Greatest Fear in Life. Is Watching TV a Waste of Time?, Should People Speak Many Languages?, The Relationship between Learning English and Getting a Good Job, Is Writing the most Important Skill in English? Does Wealth Lead to Happiness?
Visual aids in public speaking. Presentation topics: My Favourite Season, The Asdvantages and the Disadvantages of Life in the City and the Countryside, Countries of the World, Famous Capital Cities.
The importance of audience in public speaking. The psychology of audience. Dealing with your audience. Analyzing your audience. How to make audience listen. How to become a good listener. Presentation topics: Has the Internet Become the Main and the Only Source of Information?, The Search Engines in the Internet: Yahoo and Google, The Effects of the Internet on Health, Does the Internet Affect Children Negatively?, Internet Addiction: Problems and Solutions.
The speaker's voice. Pronunciation, intonation, sentence stress and rhythm. Presentation topics: The Seven Ancient Wonders of the World, The New Seven Wonders of the World, The Seven Natural Wonders of the World, The Pyramids, The Leaning Tower of Pisa.
Presentation topics: The Qualities of a Good Manager. Earning a lot of Money or Job Satisfaction? The Perfect Job, The Importance of Job Motivation, The Importance of Job Satisfaction, The Kind of Job I like Most, The Type of Job I Hate.
Types of Presentations. Informative, persuasive and instructional presentations. Public presentation topics: Parents as Role Models, Teachers as Role Models, Friends as Role Models, The Qualities of a Good Student.
Presentations on special occasions. Birthdays. Weddings. Anniversaries. Funerals. How to give a great eulogy?
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